A new page of the LICCI project is about to start as we have concluded the third and the very last training workshop. In November, we hosted 17 partners at ICTA-UAB in Barcelona for one week of intense training workshop again to comprehend the LICCI protocol . It is another fruitful and constructive week in term of discussion and networking. The LICCI core team would like to thank all of the participants for this inspiring week. We look forward to hearing and sharing our partners’ fieldwork updates soon!
LICCI currently has 43 partners from across the world. These three workshops have served as bridges for both core team members and partners to build even stronger networks, and eventually will lead to many collaborations in various formats and sub-working groups in the making.
We would like to thank all of the partners again, without whom this adventure would not have been possible.
Updates from our partners! We are happy to see that the dissemination of the LICCI project is running well through the world. Here, our Brazilian team Julia Avila (partners) and André Braga Junqueira (core team members) have recently recorded a podcast with a local radio (RioMar) and the Mamiraua Institut where they speak about their current research in the LICCI project.
based on agroclimatic models predict a dramatic decrease in the agricultural
production at the global scale, thus affecting the livelihoods of millions of
peoples. However, these models focus on the major crops and are too coarse to
represent the diversity of crop landraces responses to climate change. Lead by
Vanesse Labeyrie, partners in the LICCI research network are preparing to
collect local level data that will provide first-hand information on how climate
change is affecting crop diversity around the world and how farmers manage this
diversity to adapt.
Growing different crops
and different varieties of the same crop (i.e., crop diversity) is fundamental for
the livelihood of millions of small-farmers around the world, as it allows them
both to have diversified diets and to smooth household food consumption in the
face of uncertain ecological and socio-economic conditions. Given the
importance of crop diversity for food security, its loss is a worldwide concern
that has called the attention of scientists and policy makers alike. However,
there is a gap in knowledge concerning on one hand the impact of climate change
on this diversity, and on the other hand on how farmers are managing this
diversity to adapt.
In their attempt to understand
how the different crop are affected by climate change and how crop diversity
mitigates its impact on agricultural production, scientists have used different
analytical tools, such as crop simulation models, statistical analysis, or experiments
in controlled conditions. While informative, this research does not provide a full
picture of the dynamics of crop diversity in small-scale agriculture in
relation to climate change, and underrepresents the key role of local knowledge
and management practices. A real understanding of the relationship between climate
change impacts and crop diversity trends requires the coordinated collection of
climate variability and crop trends in small-scale farms around the world.
And this is precisely what
Vanesse Labeyrie (GREEN Research Unit, CIRAD, Montpellier) is set to do in
collaboration with a group of partners of the LICCI research network. In
coordination with the LICCI Core Team, Vanesse has developed a protocol that
allows her to track temporal trends in crop diversity in different rural societies
practicing small-scale agriculture. By coupling data collected with this
protocol with data collected in the framework of the LICCI project, Vanesse
wants to analyze whether climate change is an important driver of crop
diversity among small-farmers, and how they manage this diversity to adapt.
During our three LICCI training events, Vanesse has already trained several partners interested in applying the protocol in their fieldsites. To expand the number of case studies, we have now established a collaboration with the project ASSET (AgrobiodiverSity for a food-Secure planET). The project ASSET, led by Delphine Renard (CEFE, Montpellier), aims at evaluating the potential of increased crop diversity to reduce climate risks to food production. ASSET combines ecological, agronomic and ethnoecological work at the global and local scales in France (on vineyards), in northern Morocco (on olive agroforests) and in Senegal (on cereal-leguminous cropping systems). LICCI and ASSET are combining forces to homogenize their data collection tools, to increase the empirical base to be used to answer together how climate change is impacting crop diversity among small farmers and how they manage this diversity to adapt to the climatic variability and change. Within this framework, the past 13th November, we conducted an additional training session on the crop diversity protocol for ASSET members, and adjusted it to be able to answer new research questions.
If you are interested in joining or learning more about the Crop Diversity group in LICCI, please contact Vanesse Labeyrie (email@example.com).
This past October, André, Petra, and Viki from the LICCI core team
went on a field trip to the Territorio Indígena Tsimane’ (Dept. Beni,
Bolivia). Tomas Huanca, Esther Conde, Isidoro Canchi and Elias Isa,
members of our partner organization “Centro Boliviano de Desarrollo
Socio Integral” (CBIDSI) also came along. Together, they worked in
identifying changes perceived by the Timane´ in their territory. This
was a particularly emotive trip as Viki, Tomas, and Esther have worked
in the area for two decades and have also been witnesses of some of the
changes mentioned by the Tsimane’.
The Tsimane’ were a society
of hunter-gatherers who lived isolated from the market economy and the
national society until recently. The opening of roads in the area in the
1970’s, and the consequent arrival of missionaries, traders, colonists
farmers, cattle ranchers, and loggers changed Tsimane’ life styles in
profound ways. The elaboration of a time line of important events in the
area highlighted how the Tsimane’ themselves perceived these processes.
It was also useful to explore how these external pressures continue to
threaten their territory nowadays, as the Tsimane’ reported the recent
effects of new colonization waves and the opening of new logging roads.
In our conversations with the Tsimane’, we learned that they also
perceive many changes in the climatic system with cascade effects on the
biophysical and socioeconomic systems. For example, the Tsimane’
report an increase in temperature and a decrease in the amount of
rainfall. According to them, these affect the amount of water in the
river and the stream, as well as water temperature. Together this
increases fish mortality. Hotter temperatures and decreased rains also
affect the ripening of some cultural keystone species for the Tsimane’,
such as the Väij (Bactris gasipaes) –which indicated the end of the
rainy season and the start of the Tsimane’ seasonal calendar-, and the
O’ba (Ceiba pentandra)– whose flowering indicated the best time for
Through our interviews, we also noticed that the
Tsimane’ have their own understanding of the complex relations and
multiple drivers of change. For example, when asked to clarify causes
of decrease in fish abundance in a focus group discussion, participants
mentioned that there were many drivers for this change, including the
adoption of new technologies (fishing nets), the increase in fish
commercialization, together with the decrease in river water, the
increase in river water temperature, and the lack of respect to cultural
Despite 20 years of work with the Tsimane’, we still
have a lot to learn from them, and we are excited to keep on
collaborating with the Tsimane´ and CBIDSI during the LICCI project.
“Me alegro mucho de haber participado en este estudio. Yo ya no se muchas cosas de mi propia cultura, y trabajando en este estudio he aprendido mucho. Me alegro de haber participado” (Isidoro Canchi, Indigenous researcher at CBIDSI).
“Estoy muy contento de este viaje. Yo no había visitado estas comunidades nunca antes; es mi primer viaje rio arriba. He aprendido cosas que no conocía antes. Los comunarios nos han dicho que hay muchos cambios, sobretodo por sequía. Como yo también soy del campo, me ha interesado aprender esto. Estoy muy contento de haber ido a este viaje” (Elias Isa, Indigenous researcher at CBIDSI).
During August and September 2019, LICCI partner Dr Cuni Sanchez and her colleagues
Dr G. Imani and R. Batumike, started their research on climate change
perceptions and adaptation by the Twa hunter-gatherers living around
Kahuzi-Biega National Park. This park which covers lowland and montane forests,
hosts several endangered iconic mammals such as Grauer’s gorilla (Gorilla beringei graueri), eastern
chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes
schweinfurthii) and forest elephant (Loxodonta
africana var. cyclotis). Unfortunately, it is listed as a World Heritage
Site in Danger as a consequence of past armed conflict in the region and the
current presence of armed militia (involved in illegal mining and hunting)
within the park. Despite being less notorious, climate change is also affecting
the park, especially its montane forests.
Montane forests are particularly sensitive to climatic changes: with raising temperatures, the altitude where clouds (or fog) form changes. Fog is an important source of water in montane forests: leaves and branches from trees, together with mosses, collect water droplets from fog. As the Twa pointed out: ‘before nearly every day was misty; but now you can only find mist during the rainy season, and not even every day of it’. Changes in rainfall patterns, hail storms and temperatures were also reported. They also highlighted a notorious reduction in the abundance of mushrooms, edible caterpillars, wild honey and crabs, which they related to both deforestation and climatic changes. These changes had a negative effect on their diet and health.
Combining the traditional ecological knowledge of the Twa with meteorological data of nearby stations and remote sensing analysis of deforestation, the team will reconstruct the changes taken place in the area, and how the Twa have deal with them. The team also interviewed Tembo farmers to get insights on how these farmers have deal with climatic and environmental changes. The Twa were very happy to see the researchers (and vice-versa), whom they knew from a past project on forest use and valuation. With no TV, radio, or mobile phones, and limited access to schools and hospitals, the researchers are both a source of news and good entertainment.
Dr Aida Cuni Sanchez (University of York in UK), Dr Gerard Imani and Rodrigue Batumike (Université Officielle de Bukabu in DRC).
During September, the LICCI core team member André Junqueira went to the Juruá River, in western Brazilian Amazonia, to start the arrangements for his forthcoming fieldwork in the region. The Juruá, a tributary of the Amazon River, is a dynamic meandering river with its headwaters in the Andes, carrying a large amount of sediments that gets deposited every year in its wide floodplains. Along the Juruá inhabit different indigenous groups as well as the ribeirinhos, a diverse population that emerged from the contact between local indigenous people and migrants that came from Northeastern Brazil during the ‘rubber boom’ in the late 19th Century.
Fishing, agriculture and the extraction of forest resources form the base of their livelihoods, which have gradually become more diversified since rubber tapping ceased around the 1930s. With amplitudes that can reach 12m (i.e. the difference between the lowest and highest water level), the annual river flood pulse has a profound influence in the local social-ecological system, affecting cultivation cycles, availability of resources, level of accessibility, and many other socio-economic and biophysical elements.
In the last
decades, however, local residents have reported changes in the flood pulse, in
the rainfall seasonality and in other biophysical elements that have strongly
affected their livelihoods. Combining the traditional ecological knowledge of
local residents with hydrological, climatic and dendrochronological data (i.e.,
the analysis of tree rings), André will reconstruct the history of the changes
that have taken place on the cycles of rainfall and river fluctuation during
the last century, and understand how the ribeirinhos
have been dealing with these changes.
first trip, André established contact with local organizations, leaders of the
communities, and formalized a collaboration with the Instituto Juruá – a local
institution that has a strong presence and an excellent trust relationship with
the local communities. Instituto Juruá is presided by Dr. João Vitor Campos-Silva – also a LICCI partner -, who provided invaluable
help and guided us through the many curves of the Juruá River. We are excited
to keep on working in the region and we are grateful to Instituto Juruá and
mainly to the ribeirinhos for such a warm welcome!
The event was hosted by the Universidad Privada de Santa Cruz (Bolivia), and took the form of a dialogue between two forms of knowing. Robert Cartagena, Tacana Indigenous representative, highlighted how climate change adds to the web of other changes that are affecting their people, emphasizing how water issues have the potential to become a problem as increasing drought adds to lack of long term planning of hydrological resources.
Representatives from TCO Monte Verde pointed out their interest in building alliances with scientists to present their knowledge to policy makers, as their local knowledge is not often considered in policy settings. We are looking forward more dialogues to build new knowledge!
As time goes by, it is exciting to see the LICCI network keeps growing and thriving. Last week we hosted 14 partners at ICTA-UAB in Barcelona to foster collaborative research and set common ground for the data collection in the field. Partners from across the world dedicated their efforts to familiarizing the LICCI protocols, sharing experiences working with Indigenous Peoples and climate change, and forging future collaborations among each other and beyond. The week-long workshop was intense in schedule yet rather fruitful in constructive discussions and critical thinking. The LICCI core team would like to thank all of the participants for this inspiring week. Hope to cross paths very soon!
>> If you want to know more about our partners you can check their profiles here.
This Ph.D. project will study gendered perceptions of climate change impacts with a particular focus on marine fisheries and aquaculture in target regions in both developed and developing countries. Data on perception of climate change impacts will be collected at the individual level, with a purposive sample targeting women and men. The PhD student will 1) conduct a literature review on gendered perceptions of climate change impacts; 2) analyze gendered patterns in local perceptions of climate change impacts using the LICCI data set (www.licci.eu); and 3) collect and analyze primary data on climate change impacts, climatology, catch data from industrial and artisanal fishing activities and post-harvest fresh fish processing and distribution in a case study featuring fisheries and aquaculture sector from Liberia (west Africa).