LICCI – Local Indicators of Climate Change Impacts. The Contribution of Local Knowledge to Climate Change Research – is an ERC funded project that aims to bring insights from indigenous and local knowledge to climate research.
In the quest to better understand local climate change impacts on physical, biological, and socioeconomic systems and how such impacts are locally perceived, scientists are challenged by the scarcity of grounded data, which has resulted in a call for exploring new data sources. People with a long history of interaction with the environment have developed complex knowledge systems that allow them to detect local impacts of climatic variability, but these insights are absent in climate change research and policy fora. The LICCI project aims to bring insights from local knowledge systems to climate research by
- providing data on local perceptions of climate change impacts on climatic (e.g. rainfall patterns change), physical (e.g., shrinking glaciers), biological (e.g., phenological changes), and socioeconomic systems (e.g., crop failure due to rainfall patterns change), and
- testing hypotheses on the global spatial, socioeconomic and demographic distribution of local climate change impacts indicators.
The LICCI project started in June 2018 and will end in May 2023.
Climate change research
There is evidence that climate change influences many physical and biological systems, with direct effects on local livelihoods and cultures. Much of this evidence comes from natural sciences and mostly relies on large-scale records of weather and climate and the use of modelling techniques to describe climate change in data deficient regions.
However, these data is too coarse, for which local climate change impacts, particularly in socioeconomic systems, remain poorly understood. Social scientists argue that this is so, not only because global models are too coarse to capture the specificities of local climate change impacts, but also because climate change impacts largely depend on people´s local conditions, which can not be captured by global models.
Indigenous and local knowledge contributions
Indigenous and local knowledge is an unexplored data source with untapped potential to contribute to our understanding of local climate change impacts. Indigenous peoples and local communities with a long history of interaction with their environment have developed complex knowledge systems that allow them to detect not only changes in local weather and climatic variability, but also the direct effects of such changes in the physical and the biological systems on which they depend.
As world coverage of weather stations leaves large areas of the world with poor, incomplete, or unreliable weather records, information from Indigenous and local knowledge in these areas would be highly valuable. However, a review of the literature on local indicators of climate change impacts suggest that this information is also spatially biased, concentrating on African tropical regions, Polar Regions, and the Himalayan range, for which this literature would be better positioned to contribute to global debates once these biases are addressed. See full article
Beyond their potential to detect physical and biological changes, insights from local knowledge systems can improve our understanding of how climate change impacts local socioeconomic systems, as they provide valuable information on how local livelihoods are affected by climate change impacts. Given that perceptions of changes influence how people respond to them, such information could contribute to the development of appropriate adaptation and mitigation policies.
For example, research among the Tsimane’, an Amazonian hunter-horticulturalist society, shows that local observations of climatic changes (i.e., rainfall and temperature) are robustly associated with local station data and that both sources of data are in dissonance with the spatially-interpolated gridded climate data that are used to describe past or project future climate change. See full article
A Case Study
The pilot testing of the LICCI project has been done in Sierra Nevada, a mountain range in the southeast of Spain where traditional water management practices have played an important role in shaping the landscape. We conducted a total of 240 surveys with farmers and shepherds living in the area. The main local indicators of climate change impacts reported by respondents related to the lack of water and the loss of traditional irrigation systems, although we found important differences in the intensity of the impacts perceived in different areas and across livelihood strategies. These findings support the idea that climate change impacts are more nuanced than what can be predicted by regional climate models. Read more